Implantable neural probes that are mechanically compliant with brain tissue offer important opportunities for stable neural interfaces in both basic neuroscience and clinical applications. Here, we developed a Neurotassel consisting of an array of flexible and high–aspect ratio microelectrode filaments. A Neurotassel can spontaneously assemble into a thin and implantable fiber through elastocapillary interactions when withdrawn from a molten, tissue-dissolvable polymer. Chronically implanted Neurotassels elicited minimal neuronal cell loss in the brain and enabled stable activity recordings of the same population of neurons in mice learning to perform a task. Moreover, Neurotassels can be readily scaled up to 1024 microelectrode filaments, each with a neurite-scale cross-sectional footprint of 3 × 1.5 μm2, to form implantable fibers with a total diameter of ~100 μm. With their ultrasmall sizes, high flexibility, and scalability, Neurotassels offer a new approach for stable neural activity recording and neuroprosthetics. Implantable neural probes are the most widely used tool for recording neural activity at single-cell, submillisecond resolution (1–9), but their signals tend to ...