On November 14, 1969, the second manned mission to land on the Moon lifted off from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Four months after the historic Apollo 11 landing, it was the first true manned exploration mission to the lunar surface and one that opened the way to even more ambitious landings over the next three years. This is a question that many people were asking even back in 1969. Though the historic importance of the first lunar landings is well understood today, and in the wake of Apollo 11 many top NASA brass were already lobbying for Moon colonies to be established and even the staging of the first manned missions to Mars, but there were also objections to continuing the Apollo program. Some argued that Apollo 11 had been a great victory in the Cold War and there was no need to build on it with more landings. Others saw it as a great adventure story that had already been told, so what was the point of just playing out the same plot over and over. Meanwhile, some resented the costs of Apollo, which was the equivalent of that of a small war – especially when the US was already engaged in a very unpopular hot war in Indochina. But there were other arguments for the landings. Essen...